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With three cases recently closed, Google has been in the crosshairs of European Union Competition Commissioner Vestager and her team for the last few years. Google’s fines so far amount to more than €8.2 billion in total.
Yet this was not the only problem arising from the European Commission’s (EC) attention. Google has initially struggled to comply with the remedies the EC imposed in 2017 in its Google Search (Shopping) decision (Google Shopping). Eventually, in March 2019, Commissioner Vestager referred to Google’s initiatives to tackle the EC’s concerns as positive.